Cancer Classification

Classification and Nomenclature of Tumours

We may conveniently distinguish tumours of:-

1) Epithelial tissues
2) Connective tissues including muscles
3) Blood Vessels and lymphatics
4) Nervous system
5) Lymphoid and Lymphopoietic tissues
6) Others

Of these, the epithelial are the overwhelmingly commonest and responsible for 90% of all the Cancer deaths.

Group1 – Tumours of epithelial tissues.

If benign, these are:
papillomas – ordinary epithelium
Adenoma- Glandular epithelium.
If malignant these are – Carcinomas
If papilloma turns into malignant, it should be called papillo- carcinoma but in parlence it is better called as “ Carcinoma”.
If adenoma turns into malignant it is called Adenocarcinoma- malignant tumour of glandular tissue.

Group2 – Tumours of non- haemopoietic mesenchymal tissues

Benign tumours of connective tissues – skeletal, vascular meningeal, muscle tissues may be referred as.

Febroma – Non malignant tumour of connective tissue.
Myoma – Benign tumour of muscle. Smooth muscle- Leiomyoma.
Myxoma – Benign gelatinous tumour of connective tissue.
Striated muscle – rhabdomyoms
Lipoma – Benign tumour of fat cell.
Chondroma – Benign tumour of cartilaeginous tissues.
Osteoma – Benign tumour of bones.
Osteoclastoma – Rare benign tumour of bone caused by proliferation of osteoclast cells.
Synovioma – Benign tumour of synovial membrane.
Angioma – Haemangioma- Lymphangioma- glomangioma.

Group 3 – Tumours of Haemopoietic tissues

Pecular nature of the haemopoitic tissues & their tumour specially their production of freely circulating or mobile cells justifies separation from those of the fixed mesenchymal tissues. These are conveniently grouped as:
a) Tumours of lymphoid tissue.
1. Follicular lymphoma – Graafian follicle, hair follicle, benign tumour of these organs.
2. Lymphosarcoma – Old term for certain lymphoma; Leukemia- any or group of malignant diseases in which the bone marrow and other blood forming organs produce increased number of certain type of white blood cells.
3. Lymphatic leukaemia
4. Hodgkins disease
5. Reticulosarcoma

b) Myelomatosis and plasmocytoma
c) Myelogenous leukaemia & chloroma
d) Primary polycythaemia
Group 4 – Tumours of Neural tissues

This is a diverse group comprising of:
a) Glyoma
1) Astrocytic glyomas
2) Oligodendroglioma
3) Meduloblastoma
4) Ependymal glioma
5) Penealoma

b) Papillary tumours of choroids plexus
c) Neurilemmoma
d) Neuroblastoma and gangleoneuroma
e) Chromaffinoma and carotid body tumours
f) Retinal and ciliary tumours
1) Retinoblastoma
2) Biktyoma
3) Epithelial tumour of ciliary bodies

Group 5 – Sundry special class of tumours

a) Chondroma
b) Melanoma
c) Embyonic tumours of viscera
1) Nephroblastoma
2) Hepatoblastoma
3) Embyonic tumours of other part
d) Teratoma
e) Chorionic epithelioma